Simpson's Rule Implementation trick?
03-18-2016, 12:11 AM (This post was last modified: 03-21-2016 03:32 AM by Namir.)
Post: #1 Namir Senior Member Posts: 699 Joined: Dec 2013
Simpson's Rule Implementation trick?
I found C code in an article on the Internet that implements Simpson's rule using a single for loop. Here is the pseudo-code for the C code:

Code:
 Simpson's Rule for Numerical Integration Ver 1 ====================================== Given f(x) and limit [a, b} with n points if n modulo 2 = 0 then n = n + 1 h = (b - a) / (n + 1) sum = f(a) + f(b) + 4*f(a+h) for i=2 to n step 2   sum = sum + 2*f(a+i*h) + 4*f(a + (i+1)*h) next area = h/3*sum

Here is a version that I modified to avoid using a+i*h and a+(i+1)*h:

Code:
 Simpson's Rule for Numerical Integration Ver 2 ====================================== Given f(x) and limit [a, b} with n points if n modulo 2 = 0 then n = n + 1 h = (b - a) / (n + 1) x = a+h sum = f(a) + f(b) + 4*f(x) for i=2 to n step 2   x = x + h   sum = sum + 2*f(x)   x = x + h   sum = sum + 4*f(x) next area = h/3*sum

Consolidating the for loop to have a single update to sum:

Code:
Simpson's Rule for Numerical Integration Ver 3 ============================================== Given f(x) and limit [a, b} with n points if n modulo 2 = 0 then n = n + 1 h = (b - a) / (n + 1) x = a+h sum = f(a) + f(b) + 4*f(x) c = 2 for i=2 to n   x = x + h   sum = sum + c*f(x)   c = 6 - c next area = h/3*sum

Enjoy!

Namir
03-18-2016, 01:14 PM (This post was last modified: 03-18-2016 01:15 PM by Dieter.)
Post: #2
 Dieter Senior Member Posts: 2,397 Joined: Dec 2013
RE: Simpson Rule Implementation trick?
(03-18-2016 12:11 AM)Namir Wrote:  I found C code in an article on the Internet that implements Simpson's rule using a single for loop.

Fine. But what's the improvement over another solution with a simple for loop as it has been discussed in December in this thread?

Dieter
03-18-2016, 08:47 PM
Post: #3 Namir Senior Member Posts: 699 Joined: Dec 2013
RE: Simpron Rule Implementation trick?
By initializing the sum as:

Code:
sum = f(a) + f(b) + 4*f(a+h)

Code:
 sum = f(a) + f(b)
We can then iterate over the terms multiplied by 2 and then by 4. We can do this:

Code:
for i=2 to n step 2   sum = sum + 2*f(a+i*h) + 4*f(a + (i+1)*h) next

Or, borrowing from the old threads:

Code:
c = 2 for i=2 to n   x = x + h   sum = sum + c*f(x)   c = 6 - c next
03-18-2016, 11:15 PM (This post was last modified: 03-18-2016 11:16 PM by Vtile.)
Post: #4
 Vtile Senior Member Posts: 384 Joined: Oct 2015
RE: Simpron Rule Implementation trick?
Why Simpson rule, why not ie. runge-kutta as isn't that the way when calculating numerical solution for integrals with high accuracy? I know must be rather idiotic question (since obviously it wouldn't discussed here if it would not have use), but need to ask to learn.
03-18-2016, 11:53 PM
Post: #5 Namir Senior Member Posts: 699 Joined: Dec 2013
RE: Simpron Rule Implementation trick?
(03-18-2016 11:15 PM)Vtile Wrote:  Why Simpson rule, why not ie. runge-kutta as isn't that the way when calculating numerical solution for integrals with high accuracy? I know must be rather idiotic question (since obviously it wouldn't discussed here if it would not have use), but need to ask to learn.

The Gauss-Krnorod quadrature is among the best numerical integration methods. This thread just comments on a little trick that I noticed in an article that discusses basic numerical integration methods. The code that initializes the sum of terms caught my attention .... that's all.

BTW, The Runge-Kutta methods are for solving ordinary differential equations.

Namir
03-19-2016, 01:14 AM
Post: #6
 Vtile Senior Member Posts: 384 Joined: Oct 2015
RE: Simpron Rule Implementation trick?
I see, back to the books then. 03-19-2016, 04:59 AM
Post: #7
 ttw Member Posts: 196 Joined: Jun 2014
RE: Simpron Rule Implementation trick?
Romberg's method is pretty good. It can be of arbitrarily high order if the integrand is smooth enough and can be adapted to giving error estimates.
03-19-2016, 06:45 AM
Post: #8
 Dieter Senior Member Posts: 2,397 Joined: Dec 2013
RE: Simpron Rule Implementation trick?
(03-19-2016 04:59 AM)ttw Wrote:  Romberg's method is pretty good. It can be of arbitrarily high order if the integrand is smooth enough and can be adapted to giving error estimates.

This is also possible with Simpson's method. Two approximations with n and 2n intervals give a new and improved estimate.
Take a look a this thread in the HP41 software library.

Dieter
03-19-2016, 06:50 AM
Post: #9 Paul Dale Senior Member Posts: 1,611 Joined: Dec 2013
RE: Simpron Rule Implementation trick?
I'm a fan of the Gauss-Kronrod quadratures. The 34S started with one of these for its integrate function. It wasn't adaptive and failed too often and people complained so I went back to a Romberg method.

For the 43s I'd like to switch back to an adaptive GK method. It should have the memory to handle it.

- Pauli
03-19-2016, 02:21 PM
Post: #10 Namir Senior Member Posts: 699 Joined: Dec 2013
RE: Simpron Rule Implementation trick?
(03-19-2016 06:45 AM)Dieter Wrote:
(03-19-2016 04:59 AM)ttw Wrote:  Romberg's method is pretty good. It can be of arbitrarily high order if the integrand is smooth enough and can be adapted to giving error estimates.

This is also possible with Simpson's method. Two approximations with n and 2n intervals give a new and improved estimate.
Take a look a this thread in the HP41 software library.

Dieter

I have implemented a variant of the Romberg method that uses Simpson's rule to start with instead of teh Trapezoidal rule. You can find this variant method on my web site.

Namir
03-19-2016, 02:22 PM
Post: #11 Namir Senior Member Posts: 699 Joined: Dec 2013
RE: Simpron Rule Implementation trick?
(03-19-2016 06:50 AM)Paul Dale Wrote:  I'm a fan of the Gauss-Kronrod quadratures. The 34S started with one of these for its integrate function. It wasn't adaptive and failed too often and people complained so I went back to a Romberg method.

For the 43s I'd like to switch back to an adaptive GK method. It should have the memory to handle it.

- Pauli

I think the Integrate function of the HP-34C and HP-15C (and later models?) use a method based on Romberg's method.

Namir
03-19-2016, 05:05 PM (This post was last modified: 03-19-2016 05:09 PM by Dieter.)
Post: #12
 Dieter Senior Member Posts: 2,397 Joined: Dec 2013
RE: Simpson Rule Implementation trick?
(03-19-2016 02:21 PM)Namir Wrote:  I have implemented a variant of the Romberg method that uses Simpson's rule to start with instead of teh Trapezoidal rule. You can find this variant method on my web site.

Yes, I have seen this some time ago and I tried some of the VBA code (after some modifications for my older Excel version). Interesting results, the Romberg-Simpson method looks quite promising. However, on a calculator with limited ressources I prefer the Simpson method with additional extrapolation.

Now the next step would be an improvement for periodic functions, i.e. something that uses nodes that are not evenly distributed. Such a method is also used in the original 34C Integrate method.

BTW... Namir, could you please correct the typo in the subject of your initial post? The way it is written now ("Simpron") noone will be able to find this thread while searching the forum.

Dieter
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