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Method of Weighted Residual on the HP 28S
03-11-2017, 03:18 AM (This post was last modified: 09-28-2019 03:22 AM by mbrethen.)
Post: #1
Method of Weighted Residual on the HP 28S
Prior to development of the Finite Element Method, there existed an approximation technique for solving differential equations called the Weighted Residual Method (WRM). In order to explain the method, consider the example problem in the attached pdf. A trial function, u = ax(1-x), is selected as an approximate solution to the differential equation. The trial function is chosen such that it satisfies the boundary conditions and it has one unknown coefficient to be determined. Once a trial function is selected, the residual R is computed by substituting the trial function into the differential equation. Because u is different from the exact solution, the residual does not vanish for all values of x within the boundary values. The next step is to determine the unknown constant a such that the chosen test function best approximates the exact solution. For Galerkin's method, the test function w comes from the chosen trial function, i.e. w = du/da and the weighted average of the residual over the problem domain is set to zero.

Code:
WRU1 ( Weighted Residual 1 ) Utility

Program:                                Comments:

<<
   -> n                                 Save parameter.
   <<
      LIST-> DROP 1 n                   Put x, a & b on stack. Drop size.
      FOR m
        "I" 48 m + CHR + STR->          I1 … In 
      NEXT
      n ->LIST                          Make weighted residual list.
   >>
>>


WRU2 ( Weighted Residual 2 ) Utility

Required Program:
 • MSLV

Program:                                Comments:

<<
   DO                
     GETI 1E-3 SWAP STO                 Store initial guesses.
   UNTIL
     46 FS?
   END
   DROP
   1E-5 DUP                             Acceptable error and delta.
   MSLV CLMF DROP                       Run the solver.
   EVAL                                 Evaluate trial function.
>>


CWRM ( Collocation weighted residual method ) Subroutine

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Level 3     Level 2      Level 1     |     Level 1                          |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|  'symb'      {list}     {global a b}  ->  'algebraic'                        |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Required Program:
 • DEQ
 • WRU1
 • WRU2

Program:                                Comments:

<<
   OVER SIZE -> n                       n = number of unknown coefficients.
  <<
     n WRU1 -> uc x a b wr              Save parameters.
    << 
       DUP x
       DEQ
       1. n
       FOR j
         'W' j GET                      xᵢ
         x STO R EVAL                   δ(xᵢ)R (x {aᵢ})
         x 4 ∫ DUP
         a b                            Boundary values
         FOR k
           k x STO EVAL SWAP            Compute the weighted average of the
         NEXT -                         residual over the problem domain.
         wr j GET STO                   Store I1 … In.
         x PURGE
       NEXT                             Collect weighted residuals.
       wr uc 1 WRU2
    >>
  >>
>>


LSWRM ( Least-Squares weighted residual method ) Subroutine

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Level 3     Level 2      Level 1     |     Level 1                          |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|  'symb'      {list}     {global a b}  ->  'algebraic'                        |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Required Program:
 • DEQ
 • WRU1
 • WRU2

Program:                                Comments:

<<
   OVER SIZE -> n
  <<
     n WRU1 -> uc x a b wr
    << 
       DUP x
       DEQ
       { }
       1. n
       FOR i
         R
         uc i GET                       aᵢ
         ∂ +                            dR/daᵢ
       NEXT
       'W' STO
       1. n
       FOR j
         'W' j GET                      Put wᵢ on the stack.
         R *                            
         x 6 ∫ DUP
         a b
         FOR k 
           k x STO EVAL SWAP
         NEXT -
         wr j GET STO
         x PURGE
       NEXT
       wr uc 1 WRU2
    >>
  >>
>>


GWRM ( Galerkin weighted residual method ) Subroutine

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Level 3     Level 2      Level 1     |     Level 1                          |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|  'symb'      {list}     {global a b}  ->  'algebraic'                        |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Required Program:
 • DEQ
 • WRU1
 • WRU2

Program:                                Comments:

<<
   OVER SIZE -> n
  <<
     n WRU1 -> uc x a b wr
    << 
       DUP x
       DEQ
       { }
       1. n
       FOR i
         OVER                           û
         uc i GET                       aᵢ
         ∂ +                            dû/daᵢ
       NEXT
       'W' STO
       1. n
       FOR j
         'W' j GET                      Put wᵢ on the stack.
         R *
         x 6 ∫ DUP
         a b
         FOR k 
           k x STO EVAL SWAP
         NEXT -
         wr j GET STO
         x PURGE
       NEXT
       wr uc 1 WRU2
    >>
  >>
>>

The most straightforward method of defining R is to store the program DEQ:
Code:
<< -> u x << u x ∂ x ∂ u - x + 'R' STO >> >>

Execute GWRM with three arguments, as follows:
  1. The level 3 argument is an algebraic object that represents the trial function, e.g. 'A*X*(1-X)'.
  2. The level 2 argument is a list containing the unknown coefficients, e.g. { A }.
  3. The level 1 argument is a list containing the independent variable and boundary values, e.g. { 'X' 0 1}.

The program returns the trial function with a = 0.22727 (runtime ~1 min 48 sec). It is shown plotted with the exact solution for 0<x<1. In order to improve the approximation another term is added to the trial function, u = a1x(1-x) + a2x^2(1-x). This solution took about 31 min.

RPL calculators did not have a simultaneous equation solver until the 49 series introduced the MSLV function. Mike Ingle wrote the code TMSLV for the 48GX and HP-28C&S. It can be found elsewhere on the web.

Edit: Program now includes the Collocation and Least Squares methods.


Attached File(s)
.pdf  galerkin_ex1.pdf (Size: 721.45 KB / Downloads: 17)
.txt  28s_Weighted_Residual_Methods.txt (Size: 8.63 KB / Downloads: 1)
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