New Appoach for Random Number Generation???
03-21-2019, 12:06 PM (This post was last modified: 03-21-2019 11:50 PM by Namir.)
Post: #1 Namir Senior Member Posts: 698 Joined: Dec 2013
New Appoach for Random Number Generation???
Hi All!

I thought of a new class of random numbers! Pick two different approximations of the same function, call them f1(x) and f2(x). Perform the following:

Code:
Using a seed of X in [0,1]. Calculate f1(x) and f2(x). Calculate D = Abs(f1(x) – f2(x)) Calculate L = fix(log10(Diff)) to remove factional part Calculate x = Diff / 10 ^ L Calculate x = Frac(10000 * x)

Functions f1(x) and f2(x) should NOT return extremely small or ig values for argumens in [0, 1]. The last calculation step above obtains some numerical noise suitable as random values.

Here is sample code in Excel VBA using two approximations for the Normal CDF:

Code:
Option Explicit Function Frac(ByVal x As Double) As Double   Frac = x - Fix(x) End Function Function phi3(ByVal x As Double) As Double ' Page 1977   Dim y As Double, Pi As Double   Dim K As Double      Pi = 4 * Atn(1)   K = Sqr(2 / Pi)   y = K * x * (1 + 0.44715 * x * x)      phi3 = 0.5 * (1 + WorksheetFunction.Tanh(y)) End Function Function phi4(ByVal x As Double) As Double ' Hammaker 1978   Dim y As Double, Pi As Double   Dim K As Double      Pi = 4 * Atn(1)   K = Sqr(2 / Pi)   y = 0.806 * x * (1 - 0.018 * x)      phi4 = 0.5 * (1 + -Sqr(1 - Exp(-y * y))) End Function Function Rand34(ByVal x As Double) As Double   Dim Diff As Double   Dim L As Integer      Diff = Abs(phi3(x) - phi4(x))   L = Fix(Log(Diff) / Log(10))   x = Diff / 10 ^ L   x = Frac(10000 * x)   Rand34 = x End Function Sub go()   Const max = 10000   Dim x As Double   Dim I As Integer      Randomize Timer   x = Rnd(1)   For I = 1 To max     DoEvents     If x = 0 Then x = Frac(Log(4 * Atn(1) + I) / Log(10))     x = Rand34(x)     Cells(I, 1) = x   Next I End Sub

The resulting numbers have a mean close to 0.5 and standard deviation close to 0.28.

You can use simpler approximations for the Normal or other functions. Ultimately, your choices for f1(x) and f2(x) are HUGE!!!

Namir
03-21-2019, 12:47 PM
Post: #2
 ttw Member Posts: 194 Joined: Jun 2014
RE: New Appoach for Random Number Generation???
I think (though it needs some analysis) that numeric noise is rather predictable. Given any two input floating point numbers, the roundoff error is easily obtainable. Knuth has a pretty good analysis in Volume 2.
03-21-2019, 01:53 PM
Post: #3
 Albert Chan Senior Member Posts: 943 Joined: Jul 2018
RE: New Appoach for Random Number Generation???
(03-21-2019 12:06 PM)Namir Wrote:  your choices for f1(x) and f2(x) are HUGE!!!

Letting user pick f1 and f2, without any statistical analysis, is probably a bad idea.

With above setup, it is conceivable that for some seed, the period is low, possibly even 1.

Also, I think you mean L = floor(log10(Diff)), x = FRAC( Diff / 10^(L-4) )

In other words, replacing 5 sig. digits of Diff, with a decimal point.
03-21-2019, 03:14 PM (This post was last modified: 03-21-2019 03:15 PM by Namir.)
Post: #4 Namir Senior Member Posts: 698 Joined: Dec 2013
RE: New Appoach for Random Number Generation???
(03-21-2019 01:53 PM)Albert Chan Wrote:
(03-21-2019 12:06 PM)Namir Wrote:  your choices for f1(x) and f2(x) are HUGE!!!

Letting user pick f1 and f2, without any statistical analysis, is probably a bad idea.

With above setup, it is conceivable that for some seed, the period is low, possibly even 1.

Also, I think you mean L = floor(log10(Diff)), x = FRAC( Diff / 10^(L-4) )

In other words, replacing 5 sig. digits of Diff, with a decimal point.

Selecting the functions f1 and f2 (and they should be appomixations to the same target function) should be done along with testing them of course. The selection is an open wide field and can be a proverbial mine field if the choices ae not made wisely and tested. In other words, with freedom comes responsibility.

In calculating L, I used two seperate statements for the sake of clarity.
03-21-2019, 07:17 PM
Post: #5
 Albert Chan Senior Member Posts: 943 Joined: Jul 2018
RE: New Appoach for Random Number Generation???
With seed = 0.123, I created million "random" bytes = int(256*(x = rand34(x)))

Test the bytes with ent.exe, it failed the Chi-Square test.
Quote: If the percentage is greater than 99% or less than 1%, the sequence is almost certainly not random.

Entropy = 7.999695 bits per byte.

Optimum compression would reduce the size
of this 1000000 byte file by 0 percent.

Chi square distribution for 1000000 samples is 422.05, and randomly
would exceed this value less than 0.01 percent of the times.

Arithmetic mean value of data bytes is 127.3923 (127.5 = random).
Monte Carlo value for Pi is 3.140892564 (error 0.02 percent).
Serial correlation coefficient is 0.000456 (totally uncorrelated = 0.0).

BTW, rand34() *crashed* with seed of 0.0, due to log10() domain error.
03-21-2019, 07:51 PM (This post was last modified: 03-21-2019 07:52 PM by Namir.)
Post: #6 Namir Senior Member Posts: 698 Joined: Dec 2013
RE: New Appoach for Random Number Generation???
Here is another example, this time using two Calculator-oriented PRNGs! This is somewhat ironic :-)

Code:
Option Explicit Function Frac(ByVal x As Double) As Double   Frac = x - Fix(x) End Function Function Rnd1(ByVal x As Double) As Double   Rnd1 = Frac(997 * x) End Function Function Rnd2(ByVal x As Double) As Double   Dim Pi As Double   Pi = 4 * Atn(1)   Rnd2 = Frac(Pi + x) ^ 3 End Function Function Rand12(ByVal x As Double) As Double   Dim Diff As Double   Dim L As Integer      Diff = Abs(Rnd1(x) - Rnd2(x))   L = Fix(Log(Diff) / Log(10))   x = Diff / 10 ^ L   x = Frac(10000 * x)   Rand12 = x End Function Sub go()   Const max = 10000   Dim x As Double   Dim I As Integer      Randomize Timer   x = Rnd(1)   For I = 1 To max     DoEvents     x = Rand12(x)     Cells(I, 1) = x   Next I End Sub

Again, the ideas is to get the numerical noise out of low decimal places.

Namir

Heretic Math Hobbyist
03-21-2019, 11:52 PM
Post: #7 Namir Senior Member Posts: 698 Joined: Dec 2013
RE: New Appoach for Random Number Generation???
(03-21-2019 07:17 PM)Albert Chan Wrote:  With seed = 0.123, I created million "random" bytes = int(256*(x = rand34(x)))

Test the bytes with ent.exe, it failed the Chi-Square test.
Quote: If the percentage is greater than 99% or less than 1%, the sequence is almost certainly not random.

Entropy = 7.999695 bits per byte.

Optimum compression would reduce the size
of this 1000000 byte file by 0 percent.

Chi square distribution for 1000000 samples is 422.05, and randomly
would exceed this value less than 0.01 percent of the times.

Arithmetic mean value of data bytes is 127.3923 (127.5 = random).
Monte Carlo value for Pi is 3.140892564 (error 0.02 percent).
Serial correlation coefficient is 0.000456 (totally uncorrelated = 0.0).

BTW, rand34() *crashed* with seed of 0.0, due to log10() domain error.

I updated the SUB go in the first message to handle zero random numbers.
03-23-2019, 02:34 AM
Post: #8
 ttw Member Posts: 194 Joined: Jun 2014
RE: New Appoach for Random Number Generation???
You could sample the last bit or byte of two separate computations and combine them by adding or differincing mod 2 or mod 256. These should be in floating point numbers where some things get discarded. There's no reason to use the same computation. I don't know how good it would be but one could pick off the last few bits of the some numbers being used in a matrix computation (which uses lots of floating point); then add them mod 2^k with k bits. The last few bits should be almost independent and adding several of them smooths out the distribution. Note that using the most significant bits or bytes doesn't work because of Benford's law (discovered by Simon Newcomb).
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