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An extract from Equations for determining the gas and brine volumes in sea ice samples, USACE, CRREL REPORT 82-30, OCT 1982, 13 pgs.

" ABSTRACT
   Equations are developed that can be used to determine the amount of gas present in sea ice from measurements of the bulk ice density, salinity and temperature in the temperature range of -2°C to -30°C. Conversely these relationships can be used to give the density of sea ice as a function of its temperature and salinity, considering both the presence of gas and of solid salts in the ice. Equations are also given that allow the calculation of the gas and brine volumes in the ice at temperatures other than that at which the bulk density was determined.

CONCLUSIONS
   Equations have been derived to quickly calculate the air volume of sea ice considering the presence and absence of solid salts. The results show that neglecting the presence of solid salts is a reasonable assumption. However, in this era of computers and sophisticated hand calculators, we recommend considering the presence of solid salts and the use of eq 12 to calculate the air volume of sea ice. A program for making such calculations on a Hewlett-Packard 41C calculator is given in Appendix A.

APPENDIX A. HP41C AIR VOLUME PROGRAM
   The following HP-41C program was written to calculate the gas volume (VA), brine volume (VB), and total porosity (N) of sea ice samples … "

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