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An extract from Columbia Glacier Stake Location, Mass Balance, Glacier Surface Altitude, and Ice Radar Data, 1978 Measurement Year, U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, Open-File Report 79-1168, 1979 (78 pgs.)


SURVEY CALCULATIONS
Surveys were made using foresight, triangulation, and resection techniques. Foresight surveys require one horizontal angle, one vertical angle, and the slope distance. Triangulation requires horizontal and vertical angles from two instrument stations. Resection, a backsight technique, requires two horizontal angles between three known points, and three vertical angles from a surveying instrument located near the point being surveyed.

All calculations were made in the field, often at the survey point, and later checked in the office using a series of integrated subroutines programmed for the Hewlett Packard
HP-67 pocket calculator. The programs are included as tables 3-9 in this report. The resection XY coordinate equation was developed by S. M. Hodge (U.S. Geological Survey, Tacoma). All other calculations were developed by Mayo and Trabant. The programs are evolving rapidly, and there have been significant changes from the earlier versions.


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